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What are "rocks" and "minerals" - explain the differences. Describe essential concepts of chemistry related to earth materials. What is the chemical and mineral composition of the Earth's crust? List some common silicate and nonsilicate minerals. Describe and illustrate the "rock cycle" as it relates to processes and products. Describe basic geologic principles for interpreting landscape forming processes. On Earth, more than 4,000 minerals have been identified, however, of those fewer than 2 dozen are common minerals in Earth's physical environment (Figure 1-1 shows common rock-forming minerals).